CHRIS resource material suggestions


  • Schmid A. & E. Price (2011) ‘Selected literature on radicalization and de-radicalization of terrorists: monographs, edited volumes, grey literature and prime articles published since the 1960s’, Crime, law and Social Change 55(4): 337-348.

The nature of the resource: overview of literature, - can be used by teachers for inspiration and overview

  • Strengthening Resilience against Violent Radicalization’, (STRESAVIORA). Part I: Literature analysis HOME/2011/ISEC/AG/4000002547

The nature of the resource: overview of projects dealing with anti-radicalisation, - can be used by teachers for inspiration and overview

Materials on specific issues

  • Barclay, J. (2011) ‘Strategy to reach, empower and educate teenagers (STREET): A case study in government-community partnership and direct intervention to counter violent extremism’, Policy Brief, December 2011, Washington: Centre on Global Counter terrorism Cooperation.

Abstract: This policy paper examines how STREET operates and why it appears to have been so successful in tearing young people away from involvement in non-desired behaviours and with violent extremist movements in particular. In so doing, the policy paper attempts to assess what good-practice lessons can be learned from the STREET approach that might be applicable in the nascent counter radicalization strategies and programs (particularly direct intervention at the individual level) in development by UN member states.

The nature of the resource: best practice - can be used by teachers, young students and families for training, inspiration, guidance

  • Bonnell, J., Copestake, P., Kerr, D., Passy, R., Reed, C., & Salter, R., et al., (2011), ‘Teaching approaches that help to build resilience to extremism among young people’, London: Department for Education.

Abstract:  This report presents the findings from a large-scale, in-depth research study into teaching methods – knowledge, skills, teaching practices and behaviours – that help to build resilience to extremism. The focus is on teaching methods to be used in a general classroom setting rather than as part of interventions targeted at those deemed at risk of extremism.

  • The research methods used were 10 in-depth case studies of relevant projects and interventions, including interviews with teachers, practitioners and students and classroom observation, a literature review conducted according to systematic principles, and close engagement with 20 academic and other experts in the field.
  • The study was commissioned by the former Department for Children Schools and Families (DCSF), now the Department for Education (DfE), with support from the Home Office. The Office for Public Management (OPM), an independent public service research and development centre, conducted the research in partnership with the National Foundation for Educational Research (NFER), which is the UK’s largest independent provider of research, assessment and information services for education, training and children’s services.
  • The primary aim of the research was to provide a strong evidence base for schools and other education providers to help them adopt and commission the appropriate interventions to build resilience to extremism.
  • Following detailed analysis and synthesis of findings from the case study visits, together with findings from the literature review, we identified a number of key ingredients, which were important for resilience-building teaching activities. Taken together, these ingredients help to counteract the impact of factors that can help to either push or pull young people towards extremism and / or violent extremism, such as a sense of injustice or feelings of exclusion.

The key ingredients can be clustered under three headings:

  • making a connection through good design and a young-person centered approach
  • facilitating a safe space for dialogue and positive interaction
  • equipping young people with appropriate capabilities - skills, knowledge, understanding and awareness.

Whatever the setting and resources available, the principles of good design and facilitation, the first two of the three, are crucial and non-negotiable. This research suggests that a well-designed, well-facilitated intervention will go a long way to building resilience. To be more confident of longer-term, sustainable resilience, however, an additional focus is needed, over and above good design and facilitation, on building ‘harder’ skills, knowledge, understanding and awareness, including practical tools and techniques for personal resilience.

The nature of the resource: best practice - can be used by teachers, young students and families for training, inspiration, guidance

  • Dalgaard-Nielsen, A. (2010), ‘Violent radicalization in Europe: What we know and what do we not know’, Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, 33: 797-814.

Abstract: When, why, and how do people living in a democracy become radicalized to the point of being willing to use or directly support the use of terrorist violence against fellow citizens? This question has been at the centre of academic and public debate over the past years as terrorist attacks and foiled plots inspired by militant Islamism have grabbed European and American headlines. This article identifies and discusses empirical studies of radicalization and points to the strengths as well as the weaknesses characterizing these studies. The aim is to take stock of the current state of research within this field and to answer the question: From an empirical point of view, what is known and what is not known about radicalization connected to militant Islamism in Europe?

The nature of the resource:  research - can be used by teachers for overview

  • Davies, Lynn, ‘Educating against extremism: Towards a critical politicalisation of young people’, International Review of Education (2009) 55:183–203 _ Springer 2009 DOI 0.1007/s11159-008-9126-8: Abstract:

Abstract: This paper is based on a recently published book, Educating against Extremism (Davies, Educating against Extremism, 2008), which explores the potential role of schools in averting the more negative and violent forms of extremism in a country. It examines the nature of extremism; identity formation and radicalisation; religious belief, faith schools and the myth of equal value; justice, revenge and honour; and free speech, humour and satire. The paper argues that religious fundamentalism, as well as state terrorism, needs to be addressed in schools. The argument in the book is for a greater politicisation of young people through the forging of critical (dis)respect and the use of a secular basis of human rights. Specific forms of citizenship education are needed, which provide skills to analyse the media and political or religious messages, but also enable critical idealism to be fostered.

The nature of the resource: research - can be used by teachers and families for knowledge, inspiration, guidance

  • Davies, Lynn, ‘Interrupting extremism by creating educative turbulence’, Curriculum Inquiry, 2014, 44:4, 450-468, DOI: 10.1111/curi.12061

Abstract: ‘Disturbing essentialising categories of others’, as well as ‘horizontal participation in social action’ are, in this text, presented as the main parts of a strategy to counter extremism in schools. On the basis of examples from Sri Lanka, Northern Ireland and United Kingdom and drawing on complexity theory, Lynn Davies argues for ‘interruptive democracies’, where dialogue aims at disturb and to challenge – to create turbulence. She describes ‘interruptive (turbulent) classrooms’ as ‘places where offensive views can be aired and picked apart in a relatively safe setting’. In addition, she reflects upon the centrality of networks to both radicalization and de-radicalization, reflections that are directed towards answering ‘what sorts of networks and self-organising groupings among students should educators encourage’?

The nature of the resource: research based reflections that are pieced together to a prevention strategy in schools - can be used by teachers as inspiration and guidance to practice ‘interruptive democracy’.

  • Institute for Strategic Dialogue (n.d.), ‘Role of civil society in counter-radicalisation and de-radicalisation. A working paper of the European Policy Planners’ Network on countering radicalization and polarization (PPN), London: ISD.


This paper aims to outline the role of civil society in counter-radicalisation and de-radicalisation. It sets out the key terms and definitions and the rationale for civil society involvement, provides a number of case studies from European countries, and summarises some of the key challenges and lessons learned for work in this area. The Institute has prepared it for Strategic Dialogue (ISD) on behalf of the European Policy Planners Network on Countering Radicalisation and Polarisation (PPN). The PPN is an intergovernmental network of eight EU countries: Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, the Netherlands, Spain, Sweden and the UK. It brings together policy planners from both security and integration ministries, taking a comprehensive approach to the dual challenges of radicalisation and social polarisation. The network provides a systematised, informal and closed forum. A forum in which policy makers can look in depth at good and bad practices in specific policy areas with the aim of sharing and transferring experiences, developing joint initiatives where desirable, and upgrading policy approaches and strategies over the longer term. It also provides a comprehensive logging of policy developments in PPN countries and has to date covered areas such as religious institution building and religious education, de-radicalisation strategies and approaches, government engagement with Muslim communities, communications and responding to crises, government crisis management, and engagement with non-EU countries.

The nature of the resource: Policy- can be used by teachers, families and wider community for inspiration, guidance

  • Olsen, J.A. (2009), ‘Roads to Militant Radicalization - interviews with five former perpetrators of politically motivated organized violence’, København: DIIS.

Abstract: see in paper

The nature of the resource: research - analyse of case studies - can be used by teachers, young students and families for knowledge, inspiration, guidance

  • Trees Pels & Doret J. de Ruyter, ‘The Influence of Education and Socialization on Radicalization: An Exploration of Theoretical Presumptions and Empirical Research’, Child Youth Care Forum (2012) 41:311–325 DOI 10.1007/s10566-011-9155-5:

Abstract: Background and Objective Research into radicalization does not pay much attention to education. This is remarkable and possibly misses an important influence on the process of radicalization. Therefore, this article sets out to explore the relation between education on the one hand and the onset or prevention of radicalization on the other hand. Method This article is a theoretical literature review. It has analysed empirical studies— mainly from European countries—about the educational aims, content and style of Muslim parents and parents with (extreme) right-wing sympathies. Results Research examining similarity in right-wing sympathies between parents and children yields mixed results, but studies among adolescents point to a significant concordance. Research also showed that authoritarian parenting might play a significant role. Similar research among Muslim families was not found. While raising children with distrust and an authoritarian style are prevalent, the impact on adolescents has not been investigated. The empirical literature we reviewed does not give sufficient evidence to conclude that democratic ideal in and an authoritative style of education are conducive to the development of a democratic attitude. The conclusion being that there is a knowledge gap with regard to the influence of education on the onset or the prevention of radicalization. Schools and families are underappreciated sources of informal social control and social capital and therefore the gap should be closed. If there is a better understanding of the effect of education, policy as well as interventions can be developed to assist parents and teachers in preventing radicalization.

e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

The nature of the resource: research - can be used by teachers, young students and families for knowledge, inspiration, guidance

  • Silke, Andrew, ‘Holy Warriors Exploring the Psychological Processes of Jihadi Radicalization’, University of East London, UK

Abstract: This paper aims to provide an overview of the psychology of individuals who join and engage in terrorism, and in particular, of individuals who engage in jihadi-motivated terrorism such as that carried out by al-Qaeda and its affiliates. Based on the most reliable available evidence, this paper gives an account of the psychology and motivations of such individuals and the processes that facilitate and develop violent radicalization.

The nature of the resource: research - can be used by teachers, for knowledge, inspiration, and guidance

  • Westheimer, Joel, ‘What kind of citizen? The politics of educating for democracy’, Paper to be presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association New Orleans, LA, April 2, 2002,

Abstract:  The notion of democracy occupies a privileged place in our society. Educators and policymakers are increasingly pursuing a variety of programs to promote democracy through civic education, service learning, and other pedagogies. The nature of their underlying beliefs, however, differs. This article underscores the political implications of education for democracy and suggests that the narrow and often ideologically conservative conception of citizenship embedded in many current efforts at teaching for democracy reflects not arbitrary choices but rather political choices with political consequences. Three conceptions of the ‘good’ citizen are treated in this article: personally responsible, participatory, and justice oriented. They emerged from an analysis of both democratic theory and a 2-year study of educational programs aiming to promote democracy. Drawing on quantitative and qualitative data from two of the programs studied, it is argued that these conceptions embody significantly different beliefs regarding the capacities and commitments citizens need for democracy to flourish, and they carry significantly different implications for pedagogy, curriculum, evaluation, and educational policy. The authors conclude that politics and the interests of varied groups are often deeply embedded in the ways efforts to educate for democracy are conceptualized, implemented, and studied.

The nature of the resource: research and policy paper - can be used by teachers, young students and families for knowledge, inspiration, guidance

  • Violence Prevention Network, ‘Deradicalisation intervention prevention’, Bundesministrium für Familien, Senioren, Frauen und Jugend.

Abstract: Teaching material for students

The nature of the resource: best practice - can be used by teachers, young students and families for training, inspiration, guidance

Websites with teaching material for preventing radicalization in schools

The ‘Prevent for schools’ site provides a number of tools for prevention of radicalization and violent extremism in primary schools, secondary schools and further education FE/higher education HE respectively. Some of the tools for secondary schools are addressing CHRIS issues, ex. ‘Scarf 2: A programme of work that can be used to tackle prejudice’ can be useful to address both belonging and identity issues, and ‘Act Now’, communities defeating terrorism might be useful to address the issue of expression.  

The nature of the resource: Tools - can be used by teachers and students

Though the ‘Teaching controversial issues’- website seems as if it is not especially related to the issues of the CHRIS project, it can be used to discuss, which values must dominate in a classroom. I t can also be used in  discussions about how to organize discussions and how to promote open discussions on controversial issues of any kind, e.g. race, ethnicity or religion influence how students feel themselves in school.

The nature of the resource: Research presented for practitioners, debate and guidelines, provides an overall frame and links to a number of tools that can be used by teachers.

  • The ‘radicalisation research’ site presents new research on radicalization in an easily accessible manner. It also has a debate section (under the ‘debate’ tab in the top menu), that gives insight in the research-based debates in the field. In the guides section (under the ‘guide’ tab in the top menu provide tools and gives some background to them, as well (see example below).

The nature of the resource: Research presented for practitioners, debate and guidelines,  provides an overall frame and links to a number of tools that can be used by teachers.

  • In a critique of the UK strategy of the role of the school in prevention of radicalization, this article argues that what schools can do is strengthening community cohesion and enable students to become active citizens. The article does as well list resources and tools directed towards the prevention in schools following these lines.

The nature of the resource: UK policy and guidelines– provides an overall frame and links to a number of tools that can be used by teachers

Cases for discussing anti-radicalisation with students:

  • IBME - Expression and citizenship
    • IBME - The boy on fire[/list_item]
    • IBME - The white girl and her gun[/list_item]
    • IBME - Belonging - “Us and them”[/list_item]

    The nature of the resource: Tools - can be used by teachers and students - see this web page.

    CHRIS resource material suggestions

    See also:, ‘Is there a space for political statements in your school’, by Lene Kofoed Rasmussen that comments on and include one of the cases added to this webpage.


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